watsonista:

image


lissaraptor:

grantaire-put-that-bottle-down:

ihititwithmyaxe:

mothernaturenetwork:

 Harry Potter wizarding genetics decoded



If the wizarding gene is dominant, as J.K. Rowling says in her famous series of Harry Potter books, then how can a wizard be born to muggle parents (non-magical people)? And how can there be squibs (non-magical people born into wizarding lines)?
It seems these baffling genetic questions have finally been answered, thanks to Andrea Klenotiz, a biology student at the University of Delaware.
In a six-page paper, which she sent to Rowling, Klenotiz outlines how the wizarding gene works and even explains why some witches and wizards are more powerful than others.
“Magical ability could be explained by a single autosomal dominant gene if it is caused by an expansion of trinucleotide repeats with non-Mendelian ratios of inheritance,” Klenotiz explains.
What does this mean?
In school we learn the fundamentals of genetics by studying Gregory Mendel’s pea plant experiments and completing basic Punnett squares. Basically, we’re taught that whenever one copy of a gene linked to a dominant trait is present, then the offspring will exhibit that dominant trait, regardless of the other gene.
However, Non-Mendelian genes don’t follow this rule, which is the basis of Klenotiz’s argument. She says that the wizarding gene could be explained if it’s caused by a trinucleotide repeat, which is the repetition of three nucleotides — the building blocks of DNA — multiple times.
These repeats can be found in normal genes, but sometimes many more copies of this repeated code can appear in genes than is standard, causing a mutation. This kind of mutation is responsible for genetic diseases like Huntington’s Disease. Depending upon how many of these repeats occur in the genes, a person could exhibit no symptoms, could have a mild form of the disease or could have a severe form of it.
In her paper, Klenotiz argues that eggs with high levels of these repeats are more likely to be fertilized, a phenomenon known as transmission ratio distortion. She also suggests that the egg or sperm with high levels of repeats is less likely to be created or to survive in the wizarding womb.
This argument answers several questions about wizarding genetics:
How can a wizard be born to muggle parents?
Genetic mutations can randomly appear, meaning anyone could be born with the wizarding gene. However, there’s a better chance of magical offspring occurring if the parents are on the high side of the normal range for mutations.
How can a squib be born to wizard parents?
Although parents with these mutated magical genes would be likely to pass the gene on to their children, there’s still a possibility that any given offspring might not inherit the trinucleotide repeat.
How can varying degrees of magical ability be explained?
The more repeats a wizard inherits, the stronger the magical power he or she will have. If both wizarding parents are powerful wizards, it’s likely their offspring will also be powerful.
You can read Klenotiz’s full paper on wizarding genetics here.




Far and away one of the nerdiest things I’ve ever read. Love it.



FAVOURITE THING

lissaraptor:

grantaire-put-that-bottle-down:

ihititwithmyaxe:

mothernaturenetwork:

Harry Potter wizarding genetics decoded

If the wizarding gene is dominant, as J.K. Rowling says in her famous series of Harry Potter books, then how can a wizard be born to muggle parents (non-magical people)? And how can there be squibs (non-magical people born into wizarding lines)?

It seems these baffling genetic questions have finally been answered, thanks to Andrea Klenotiz, a biology student at the University of Delaware.

In a six-page paper, which she sent to Rowling, Klenotiz outlines how the wizarding gene works and even explains why some witches and wizards are more powerful than others.

“Magical ability could be explained by a single autosomal dominant gene if it is caused by an expansion of trinucleotide repeats with non-Mendelian ratios of inheritance,” Klenotiz explains.

What does this mean?

In school we learn the fundamentals of genetics by studying Gregory Mendel’s pea plant experiments and completing basic Punnett squares. Basically, we’re taught that whenever one copy of a gene linked to a dominant trait is present, then the offspring will exhibit that dominant trait, regardless of the other gene.

However, Non-Mendelian genes don’t follow this rule, which is the basis of Klenotiz’s argument. She says that the wizarding gene could be explained if it’s caused by a trinucleotide repeat, which is the repetition of three nucleotides — the building blocks of DNA — multiple times.

These repeats can be found in normal genes, but sometimes many more copies of this repeated code can appear in genes than is standard, causing a mutation. This kind of mutation is responsible for genetic diseases like Huntington’s Disease. Depending upon how many of these repeats occur in the genes, a person could exhibit no symptoms, could have a mild form of the disease or could have a severe form of it.

In her paper, Klenotiz argues that eggs with high levels of these repeats are more likely to be fertilized, a phenomenon known as transmission ratio distortion. She also suggests that the egg or sperm with high levels of repeats is less likely to be created or to survive in the wizarding womb.

This argument answers several questions about wizarding genetics:

How can a wizard be born to muggle parents?

Genetic mutations can randomly appear, meaning anyone could be born with the wizarding gene. However, there’s a better chance of magical offspring occurring if the parents are on the high side of the normal range for mutations.

How can a squib be born to wizard parents?

Although parents with these mutated magical genes would be likely to pass the gene on to their children, there’s still a possibility that any given offspring might not inherit the trinucleotide repeat.

How can varying degrees of magical ability be explained?

The more repeats a wizard inherits, the stronger the magical power he or she will have. If both wizarding parents are powerful wizards, it’s likely their offspring will also be powerful.

You can read Klenotiz’s full paper on wizarding genetics here.

Far and away one of the nerdiest things I’ve ever read. Love it.

image

FAVOURITE THING


timelordsfallnomore:

Doctor Who Fest: day 9

↳ goodbye: companion death’s

"Some left me. Some got left behind. And some… not many, but… some died."


pellaeonthewingedlion:

shewhohangsoutincemeteries:

PotterFacts 7/404 | The Chamber of Secrets
"Gilderoy Lockhart is the only Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher to have no connection at all to Voldemort."

That’s because even Voldemort has a certain demand for skill and competence

pellaeonthewingedlion:

shewhohangsoutincemeteries:

PotterFacts 7/404 | The Chamber of Secrets

"Gilderoy Lockhart is the only Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher to have no connection at all to Voldemort."

That’s because even Voldemort has a certain demand for skill and competence


4x04 // 5x13 


duloxetine:

 

blackbarmitzvahs:
Can you imagine the conversation though?
Queen: I’m going
Chief of Staff: But, Your Majesty, the security risks…
Queen: I’m going I want cake 
Chief of Staff:
Queen: 
Chief of Staff: 
Queen: I want cake

duloxetine:

 

blackbarmitzvahs:

Can you imagine the conversation though?

Queen: I’m going

Chief of Staff: But, Your Majesty, the security risks…

Queen: I’m going I want cake 

Chief of Staff:

Queen: 

Chief of Staff: 

Queen: I want cake


redrubied:

tumblegags:

OMG, HE’S HELPING HIM BACK INTO THE OCEAN 

always reblog. Brothers keeper animal kingdom style


englishsnow:

 by .grux.


nervouspearl:

me watching The Hobbit for the first time


oswins-doctor:

suluisms:

For a second I thought this was the new supernatural season ten opener

oswins-doctor:

suluisms:

For a second I thought this was the new supernatural season ten opener

image


thetheatregal:

dancingtothelight:

I don’t know the source for this otherwise I’d give it
this is where I found it
but this is the most amazing solution to the biggest Harry Potter mystery
original source thanks to a lovely individual

FINALLY IT IS EXPLAINED! IT ALL MAKES SENSE!

thetheatregal:

dancingtothelight:

I don’t know the source for this otherwise I’d give it

this is where I found it

but this is the most amazing solution to the biggest Harry Potter mystery

original source thanks to a lovely individual

FINALLY IT IS EXPLAINED! IT ALL MAKES SENSE!


Favorite quotes of Peter Capaldi
→dedicated to my dearest Capaldian friend wonkyjabberwoky


theraginazian:

desmond-the-creppy-bear:

srsfunny:

Soft rocks…http://srsfunny.tumblr.com/

can you imagine though
you send your enemies a rather large amount of these in various sizes. you leave no return address or explanation. they open all the boxes to discover these wondrous pillows. they are reluctant to keep them but eventually they give in and integrate them into their home like the above pictures. after a few weeks or even months, theyve gotten accustomed to having them in their home and routinely relax in a large pile of the odd pillows. until one night you just take every single one back and replace them with actual rocks of the same dimensions so that when its time for them to relax and unwind from their day day fall into a pile of hard unmoving boulders. they break their spine and are paralyzed. you have won

What the fuck is wrong with you…

theraginazian:

desmond-the-creppy-bear:

srsfunny:

Soft rocks…
http://srsfunny.tumblr.com/

can you imagine though

you send your enemies a rather large amount of these in various sizes. you leave no return address or explanation. they open all the boxes to discover these wondrous pillows. they are reluctant to keep them but eventually they give in and integrate them into their home like the above pictures. after a few weeks or even months, theyve gotten accustomed to having them in their home and routinely relax in a large pile of the odd pillows. until one night you just take every single one back and replace them with actual rocks of the same dimensions so that when its time for them to relax and unwind from their day day fall into a pile of hard unmoving boulders. they break their spine and are paralyzed. you have won

What the fuck is wrong with you…


My Neighbor Totoro (1988) and Bob’s Burgers S03E05 An Indecent Thanksgiving Proposal (2012)


404pogohammer:

jellybabiesandjammiedodgers:

thelovelylifeofareader:

thebookishdragon:

booktown:

randomhouse:

seasighing:

Life tip: bring a book with you everywhere you go

Life pro tip: bring two, in case you finish the first one.

Bigger life pro tip: Bring a kobo/kindle with you everywhere so you have an entire library with you at all times. 

Ultimate life pro tip: live in a library and never ever leave. 

Supreme life tip: Become a library

image

NONONONONO DO NOT BECOME A LIBRARY